will be expensive, is not sustainable, and is certain to fail in the majority of areas proposed
alien species is impossible in the majority of cases and bio-control campaigns are always a costly drain on resources. Ecologist James H. Brown provides us with useful advice: “It has become imperative that [as] ecologists, evolutionary
biologists, and biogeographers … we use our expertise as scientists not for the futile effort to hold back the clock
and preserve some romantic idealised version of a pristine natural world, but for a rational attempt to understand the disturbed
ecosystems that we have created and to manage them to support both humans and wildlife”.